About the Qunoot Supplication Made in the Witr Prayer


The Prophet said “There has been no affliction, nor will be until the hour establishes, greater than that of the Dajjal” The emergence of the Dajjal will be the greatest affliction ever faced by mankind, from the creation of Adam until the last Hour, without exception. Allah will give him the ability to wreak discord, evil and disbelief on an unprecedented scale. His tenure on Earth will be characterised by terror, havoc and despair. He will make the truth appear as falsehood and vice versa.

 

Title of the study: The Narrations About the Qunoot Supplication Made in the Witr Prayer, From a Hadeeth Perspective, and From a Fiqh Perspective

Name of the author: Muhammad ibn ‘Umar ibn Saalim Baazmool

The study consists of two main parts:

Part One: The Narrations Along With a Discussion of Their Authenticity

Part Two: The Issues Related to the Qunoot Supplication Made in the Witr Prayer

The author gathered all of the authentic narrations from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and the statements of his companions related to the qunoot of witr prayer.  He then classified them into categories of authenticity, so as to distinguish between the acceptable and unacceptable ones, which allowed the founding principles of the study to be based solely on the issues related to the qunoot of witr prayer.  He gathered what has been mentioned about the subject in the well-known schools of fiqh, along with the Thaahiriyyah School.  The author then went back and researched the issues one by one, according to the authentic narrations, using the methodology of the people of knowledge and their way of research, argumentation, and deduction.

Some of the conclusions reached in the study are as follows:

The qunoot of witr may be performed all· year round.

The way of the Prophet (sallallaaghu ‘alayhe wa sallam)· was to perform it sometimes and leave it sometimes.

Continuation with it every night is confirmed for the nights of the last half of Ramadhaan, beginning with the sixteenth night.

The qunoot is to be left off in  the first half of Ramadhaan if the prayer is made in congregation with the people.  This is indeed an abandoned Sunnah, and unknown to many.

It  is permissible to make the qunoot in the first and second half of Ramadhaan.

The qunoot of witr may be made before or after the rukoo’, while it is best done before it.

Imaam Aboo ‘Abdir-Rahmaan Ahmad ibn Shu’ayb ibn ‘Alee said in al-Mujtabaa:

أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ مَيْمُونٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَخْلَدُ بْنُ يَزِيدَ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ عَنْ زُبَيْدٍ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبْزَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يُوتِرُ بِثَلاثِ رَكَعَاتٍ كَانَ يَقْرَأُ فِي الأُولَى بِسَبِّحْ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الأَعْلَى وَفِي الثَّانِيَةِ بِقُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ وَفِي الثَّالِثَةِ بِقُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ وَيَقْنُتُ قَبْلَ الرُّكُوعِ فَإِذَا فَرَغَ قَالَ عِنْدَ فَرَاغِهِ سُبْحَانَ الْمَلِكِ الْقُدُّوسِ ثَلاثَ مَرَّاتٍ يُطِيلُ فِي آخِرِهِنَّ

[Sunan an-Nasaa’ee #1699, Shaykh al-Albaanee called it saheeh]

And Imaam al-Bukhaaree has a chapter title in his Saheeh in Kitaab al-Witr: ( باب القنوت قبل الركوع وبعده ) Chapter: Qunoot before and after the Rukoo’

From the abandoned Sunnahs is to pronouce  takbeer (“Allaahu akbar”) before and after the qunoot when making the qunoot before the rukoo’.

This is based on reports from ‘Umar, ‘Alee, and al-baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib, may Allaah be pleased with them all, as found the Musannaf of Ibn Abee Shaybah (Maktabah ar-Rushd, Riyaadh, 1409 printing, as found in Turaath’s Alfiyyah software):

7033 حدثنا أبو بكر قال حدثنا وكيع بن الجراح قال حدثنا سفيان عن مخارق عن طارق بن شهاب أنه صلى خلف عمر بن الخطاب الفجر فلما فرغ من القراءة كبر ثم قنت ثم كبر ثم ركع

7034 حدثنا وكيع قال حدثنا سفيان عن عبد الأعلى عن أبي عبد الرحمن السلمي أن عليا كبر حين قنت في الفجر وكبر حين ركع

7035 حدثنا بن فضيل عن مطرف عن أبي الجهم قال كان البراء يكبر قبل أن يقنت

7036 حدثنا وكيع قال حدثنا سفيان عن مطرف عن أبي الجهم عن البراء أنه قنت في الفجر فكبر حين فرغ من القراءة وكبر حين ركع

Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool says in his research that the report from ‘Umar (7033) is established, that the chain of #7034 that describes ‘Alee’s actions is hasan, and that #7035 and #7036 (al-Baraa’) have saheeh chains.

And the following imaams held the position that there is to be a takbeer before and after the qunoot when done before the rukoo’ (with the references as found in Sh. Muhammad’s research):

Ibraaheem an-Nakha’ee (Musannaf ibn Abee Shaybah, 2/307)

al-Hakam, Hammaad, and Aboo Ishaaq (Musannaf Ibn Abee Shaybah, 2/307)

Sufyaan (Mukhtasir Qiyaam al-Layl of al-Marwazee, p.136)

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Masaa’il Abee Daawood li-Ahmad ibn Hanbal, p.101)

***From the Sunnah is that the imaam of the prayer· raises his voice with the supplications of qunoot, and the followers say “aameen.”

According to the Sunnah, the qunoot supplication is not to· be long, and restricting one’s self to what has been reported on the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) is best, as it would also be permissible to prolong it with other established phrases.

There is nothing obliging· the people to make the qunoot a certain way, rather any way is permissible, and the best way is that which has been reported.

It is from the sunnah· for the imaam of the people to not make qunoot in the first half of Ramadhaan, to make it in the last half, and to supplicate against the disbelievers in the qunoot.

[1] It is permissible to raise the hands with the qunoot· supplication, [2] to leave them down at the sides, [3]or to raise them for the first part and leave them down for the last part.  All of this is permissible.

1)     The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) used to raise his hands in his qunoot an-naazilah, supplicating against people.  [Saheeh: Ahmad 3/137, al-Mu’jam as-Sagheer, and al-Bayhaqee in Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah and as-Sunan al-Kubraa. See also: Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel (2/181)].

And ‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood used to raise his hands with the qunoot.

2) az-Zuhree narrates, referring to the actions of the Companions: “They did not used to raise their hands in Witr in Ramadhaan.”

3) az-Zuhree narrates that Ibn Mas’ood used to raise his hands in Witr, and the afterwards leave them at his sides.

[Moosaa: The action of Ibn Mas’ood is relevant here since he was a Companion and this issue is tawqeefee, restricted to evidence, so he would not have done things in the salaah from his own opinion, rather he learned it from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam).  And Allaah knows best.]

It is not permissible to wipe the face with the hands after the· qunoot.

It is permissible to send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu· ‘alayhe wa sallam) in the qunoot supplication.

‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood· and Ubayy ibn Ka’b (may Allaah be pleased with them both) conveyed the most narrations about the qunoot supplication in the witr prayer.

The· prayer that resembles the witr prayer most is Maghrib, as Maghrib prayer is the witr of the daytime.

Whatever is established for the naazilah qunoot· (performed in the obligatory prayers) is also acceptable for the qunoot of witr prayer.  This is supported by the principle that whatever is allowed in an obligatory act is also allowed in an optional act, unless there exists specific evidence to prohibit it.

The author hopes that he has done justice to the subject, and that he has helped to revive the methodology of the people of the knowledge in research, gathering the evidences, accepting and rejecting them due to their authenticity, and then making conclusions based on them.

May Allaah grant the author success, guidance, and firmness.

[from the abstract of a study submitted to Umm al-Quraa University by Shaykh Muhammad Baazmool]

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

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***Is the qunoot and the saying of “Aameen” by the followers to be done aloud?

[Summary]

Since there are no reports mentioning that they used to say “Aameen” behind their imaam during the qunoot of witr, then it can be established by way of their action in the qunoot an-naazilah (supplication against people in the obligatory prayers), since their saying “Aameen” behind the imaam in that prayer (*) is something done in an obligatory prayer, and it is established that it was done in Maghrib, which is the obligatory witr, thus it would be permissible to do it in a non-obligatory prayer, based on the principle mentioned in the abstract:

…Whatever is established for the naazilah qunoot (performed in the obligatory prayers) is also acceptable for the qunoot of witr prayer.  This is supported by the principle that whatever is allowed in an obligatory act is also allowed in an optional act, unless there exists specific evidence to prohibit it…

(*) As established in a hasan hadeeth collected by Ahmad (2746), Aboo Daawood (1443), Ibn Khuzaymah (618), al-Haakim (1/225), and al-Buyhaqee in as-Sunan al-Kubraa (2/200).  It was authenticated by al-Haakim, Ibn Khuzaymah, and al-Albaanee (Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel:2/163).

And Allaah knows best.

Moosaa ibn John Richardson

سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك
أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت
أستغفرك وأتوب إليك

 

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